List of countriesThe current database contains information about cabinet composition and party system development in 48 European democratic states. European indicates those countries stretching from the Atlantic to the Urals. Democratic refers to those countries displaying (1) a score of 6 or higher in the Polity IV index, (2) universal suffrage elections (including universal male suffrage only, when historically appropriate), and (3) governments formed and/or relying on a parliamentary majority, rather than on the exclusive will of the head of state. States includes those countries recognized by either the United Nations or the Council of Nations [1]

In terms of governments, the database contains information on cabinet duration (i.e. dates of formation and termination), the names of the various ministerial offices as well as of the people [2] appointed to occupy them, and the partisan affiliation of each minister at the time a particular cabinet is appointed.

In accordance with the party government literature, the database records changes of government when:

(1) there is a change in the partisan composition of the government coalition (i.e., when representatives of one or more parties leave the coalition government or join the coalition government); (2) the prime minister leaves his/her office, whether they are obliged to do so because of a no confidence vote or they decide to resign for other reasons; and (3) parliamentary elections are held, even in cases where there is no resulting change in the partisan composition of the cabinet (Müller and Strøm, 2000).

In all these cases, the database only records the partisan composition of cabinets at the time of appointment. Thus, it is important to note here that if a party leaves a government and new ministers are not appointed on the same or the following day, then these ministerial replacements are not included in the “new” cabinet. Similarly, simple government reshuffles are not recorded.

In case of electoral coalitions, the database also displays information about the partisan affiliation of the ministers belonging to the different parties within the coalition. In those instances when two or more parties merged to form a new one, the partisan affiliation of the ministers belonging to the parties merged is also shown.

In terms of party systems, and closely following the party politics literature (Bartolini and Mair, 1990; Huntington, 1968; Lijphart, 1999; Mainwaring and Scully, 1995; Sartori, 1976), the database contains operationalisations and measurements for seven different classic indicators: namely, party system institutionalisation, party institutionalisation, electoral volatility, effective number of parties, number of new parties, polarization and electoral disproportionality.[3]

All in all the database covers 172 years,[4] 68 different historical political regimes (see Appendix),[5] 753 elections,[6] and more than 1815 political parties, [7] and 1585 cases of government formation.[8]



  • Woldendorp, J., Keman, H., and Budge, I. (2000): Party government in 48 democracies (1945–1998), London: Kluwer
  • Political Data Yearbook Interactive (2015). Available at:
  • Sonntag, L. (2015). Politica. Available at:
  • The Economist Intelligence Unit (various years). Available at:
  • Keesing’s Record of World Events (various years).London: Longman

Country (period and/or regime) specific

  1. Albania
  • Albanian Government Official Website. Available at:
  • Armillotta, G. (2007): “L’Albania Post-Communista: dal Fatos Nano I al Sali Berisha II. Sedici Anni e Quindici Governi alla Ricerca della Stabilità Istituzional”, Rinascita (16th and 17th June), pp. 10-11. Available at:
  • Dervishi, K. (2006): Historia e Shtetit Shqiptar. Tirana: 55
  • Estrefi, D. (ed.) (2005): Ligjvënësit Shqiptarë (1920-2005). Tirana: Parliament of Albania
  • Estrefi, D. (ed.) (2007): Legislatura XVII (2005-2009). Tirana: Parliament of the Republic of Albania
  • Parliament of Albania (2007): Legislatura XVIII (2009-2013). Tirana.
  • Parliament of Albania (2014): Aleanca per Shqiperine Europiane. Programi i Qeverise (2013-2017). Tirana.
  1. Andorra
  1. Armenia
  1. Austria
  1. Belarus
  • Belarussian Government Official Website. Available at:
  • Bulhakau, V. et al. (ed.) (2011): Political History of Independent Belarus (before 2006). Belastok: Belarusian historical community; Vilnia: Institute of Belarusian studies
  • Fedosov, V.V. et al. (eds.) (1999): Who is Who In The Republic of Belarus. Minsk: Zavigar
  1. Belgium
  1. Bulgaria
  1. Croatia
  • Bulgarian Government Official Website. Available at:
  • Politički Vodič Kroz Hrvatsku (1993-2005). Tko Je Tko u Hrvatskoj Politici I Drzavnoj Upravi (vol. 1-12). Lexis I Hrvatski Sabor.
  • Barišić, P., Manin, M., Matanović, D., Šimunović, R., and Vitek, D. (2007): Hrvatski Sabor. 1990-2007. Zagreb: Hravtski Sabor.
  • Josip, S (2011): Hrvatski Sabor. Zastupnici 6. Saziva. 2008-2011. Zagreb: Hravtski Sabor.
  1. Cyprus
  1. Czechoslovakia
  1. Czech Republic
  1. Denmark
  1. Estonia
  1. Finland
  1. France
  1. Georgia
  1. Germany
  1. Greece
  1. Hungary
  1. Iceland
  • Icelandic Government Official Website. Available at:
  • Indridason, I.H. (2005): “A Theory of Coalitions and Clientelism: Coalition Politics in Iceland, 1945-2000”, European Journal of Political Research, v. 44, n. 3, pp. 439-464
  1. Ireland
  1. Italy
  1. Kosovo
  1. Latvia
  1. Liechtenstein
  1. Lithuania
  1. Luxembourg
  1. Macedonia
  1. Malta
  1. Moldova
  • Moldovan Government Official Website. Available at:
  • “Alegeri Parlamentare în Moldova”, e-Democracy. Available at:
  • Electorala [various years]. Chisinau: Comisia Electorala Centrala.
  • Brezianu, A. and Spânu, V. (2003): The A to Z of Moldova. USA: Scarecrow Press.
  • Brezianu, A. and Spânu, V. (2007): Historical Dictionary of Moldova. USA: Scarecrow Press.
  • Midrigan, P. (2006): “Partidele in Sistemul Politic al Republicii Moldova”, Thesis. Chisinau: Academy of Sciences of Moldova.
  • Bucataru, Igor (2005): “Institutionalizarea Partidelor Politice din Republica Moldova: Studiu Interdisciplinar”. Thesis. Chisinau: State University of Moldova
  1. Montenegro
  1. The Netherlands
  1. Norway
  1. Poland
  • Polish Government Official Website. Available at:
  • Brodacka-Adamowicz, E. (2010): Ministrowie Oświaty Drugiej Rzeczypospolitej. Okes Rządów Parlamentarnych (1918-1926). Siedlce: Uniwersyten Przyrodniczo-HumanistycznY
  • Faryś, J., Wątor, A. and Walczak H. (2010): Od Moraczewskiego do Składkowskiego. Gabiney Polski Odrodzonej 1918-1939. Szczecin: US Wydawnictwo Naukowe
  • Faryś, J. and Pajewski, J. (1991): Gabiney Polski Drugiej Rzeczypospolitej. Szczecin-Poznań: Wydawnictwo LIKON
  • Kaleta, P. (2009): Ludzie Wladzy. Polskie Niepodleglej 1989-2009. OLTOM
  1. Portugal
  1. Romania
  1. Russia
  1. San Marino
  1. Serbia
  1. Slovakia
  1. Slovenia
  1. Spain
  1. Sweden
  1. Switzerland
  1. Turkey
  1. Ukraine
  • Åslund, A. (2009): How Ukraine Became a Market Economy and Democracy. USA: Peterson Institute
  • Who is Who in Ukraine [various years]. Kiev: K.I.S.
  • Who is Who in State Governance [various years]. Kiev: K.I.S.
  • Who is Who in Ukrainian politics [various years]. Kiev: K.I.S.
  1. United Kingdom
  1. Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes
  • Dragnich, A. (1983): The First Yugoslavia: Search for a Viable Political System. USA: Hoover Press Publication
  • Fogelquist, A. (2011): Politics and Economic Policy in Yugoslavia, 1918-1929.
  • Jarman, R.L. (1997): Yugoslavia Political Diaries, 1918-1965 (2 volumes). UK: Ashley House.
  • Ljšić, R. and Dimić, L. (2005): Vlade Srbije 1805-2005. Belgrade: Zavod za Udžbenike i Nastavna Sredstva
  • Mitrinović, C. and Brasić, M. (1937): Jugoslovenske Narodne Skupstine I Sabori. Belgrade: Izdanje Narodne Skupstine Kraljevine Jugoslavije.
  • Mrđenović, D. (1988): Ustavi i Vlade 1835 – 1941. Belgrade: Nova Knjiga.
  • Rodić, N. and Jović, L. (1996): Vlade Srbije 1805-1996. Belgrade: Sluzbeni Glasnik.



In many instances the only way to know the partisan affiliation of a minister was simply by asking, either by phone or by e-mail, the minister in question or a politician close enough to him/her (e.g. a member of the same party and/or government). In most cases, the data presented in this database have been also cross-checked with information provided by country experts (see acknowledgments) and other sources on the World Wide Web.

Most of the party system indicators have been calculated by myself, taking into consideration electoral results found in:

However, the following sources should also be acknowledged:

  • Bormann, N.-C. and Golder, M. (2013): “Democratic Electoral Systems Around the World”, Electoral Studies, v. 32, n. 2, pp. 360-369
  • Bugajski, J. (2002): Political Parties of Eastern Europe. A Guide to Politics in the Post-communist Era. USA: M.E. Sharpe
  • Gallagher, M. (2014): Election Indices Dataset. Available at
  • Gallagher, M., Laver, M. and Mair, P. (2011): Representative Government in Modern Europe. London: McGraw-Hill
  • Karvonen, L. (1993): Fragmentation and Consensus. Political Organization and the Interwar Crisis in Europe. Boulder, Colorado: Columbia University Press.


Advisory board

Zsolt Enyedi (Central European University) and Martin Mölder (University of Tartu).


I would like to acknowledge the help received in the elaboration of this European-wide database from Rudy Andeweg, Max Bader, Ingrid van Biezen, Cristoforo Buscarini, Oerd Bylykbashi, Verter Casali, Lucia Cecchetti, António Costa Pinto, Goran Čular, Mikołaj Cześnik, Régis Dandoy, Kevin Deegan-Krause, Kris Deschouwer, Diana Digol, Patrick Dumont, Cees van der Eijk, Filip Ejdus, Arolda Elbasani, Zsolt Enyedi, Wojciech Gagatek, Sergiu Gherghina, Katarzyna Grzybowska-Walecka, Tim Haughton, Indriđi Indriđason, Alex Kirby, Olivera Komar, Sotiris Leventis, Conor Little, Arben Loshi, Peter Mair (R.I.P), Lucia Marfori, Armen Mazmanyan, Andriy Meleshevich, Jan Meyer-Sahling, Juli Minoves-Triquell, Gorana Mišić, Martin Mölder, Ferdinand Müller-Rommel, Kyriaki Nanou, Vello Pettai, Daniela Piccio, Marina Popescu, Filipa Raimundo, Juan Rodríguez-Teruel, Sorina Soare, Maria Spirova, Aleksander Trechsel, Peter Učen, Ivan Vuković, Wouter Veenendaal, Emilia Zankina and, especially, Christophoros Christophorou, Giorgio Comai, Trajche Panov, Dane Taleski, and Martins Zemitis. I would also like to thank all my research assistants (i.e. Lilit Banduryan, Kristina Ćelap, Maksym Dvorovyi, Stevan Kandić, Shqipe Mjekiqi, Ludmila Nofit, Daša Słabčanka, Boban Stojanović, Tamar Tolordava) who, during my various fieldwork trips, helped me with the collection of the data, translation of documents, and interviews with politicians, academics, journalists, etc. I am also very thankful to Joanna Feliszek, who helped me with the re-organization of data into a more manageable and structured form, pointing to possible lacunas, errors, etc. I am also indebted to Julio de la Iglesia Trinidad and his team ( who helped me to design this website. Finally, I would like to acknowledge Elaine Housby’s help with the language editing. I could not have completed the database without their enormous help and support. I am, of course, the only one to be blamed for any eventual errors.

[1] For this reason, the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus is not included.

[2] Senior, but not junior (i.e. deputy), ministers are recorded.

[3] Time-series (1848-2020) data files for each indicator will be made available after the OUP book based on the project is published (i.e. May 2021).

[4] The number of years per country taken into account varies between just 1 (i.e. Czechoslovakia’s Third Republic and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes) and more than a century (e.g. Norway, Denmark).

[5] The number of political regimes taken into account varies between just 1 (e.g. Belgium or the Netherlands) and 4 (i.e. France and Greece).

[6] The number of electoral cycles taken into account varies between just 1 (e.g. Greece’s post-WWII Kingdom or Poland’s First Republic) and 35 (Switzerland).

[7] The number of political parties taken into account varies between just 1 (Belarus) and 96 (The Netherlands).

[8] The number of cabinets taken into account varies between just 1 (Czechoslovakia’s Third Republic) and 96 (France’s Third Republic).