Party System Closure
Conceptualized as “predictable relations among a stable set of political parties” in the governmental arena, party system closure is measured by looking at three features: alternation, formula, and access (Casal Bértoa and Mair, 2012; Casal Bértoa and Enyedi, 2016). For more details on how to calculate closure, read Casal Bértoa and Enyedi (2021: 34-43) or watch this video.
Please cite the following database as: Casal Bértoa, F. (): Database on WHO GOVERNS in Europe and beyond, PSGo. Available at: whogoverns.eu