Party System Closure

Conceptualized as “predictable relations among a stable set of political parties” in the governmental arena, party system closure is measured by looking at three features: alternation, formula, and access (Casal Bértoa and Mair, 2012; Casal Bértoa and Enyedi, 2016). For more details on how to calculate closure, read Casal Bértoa and Enyedi (2021: 34-43) or watch this video.

party system closure 1848-1914


party system closure 1918-1939


party system closure 1945-1989

party system closure 1990-2020

DOWNLOAD DATA – 1848-2021

Please cite the following database as: Casal Bértoa, F. (): Database on WHO GOVERNS in Europe and beyond, PSGo. Available at: